A grammar of Chichewa, a Bantu language of British Central by Mark Hanna Watkins

By Mark Hanna Watkins

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Additional info for A grammar of Chichewa, a Bantu language of British Central Africa

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Whose association with the present subjunctive is therefore traceable back to Common Romanian (ILR II: ). ); the ‘bare subjunctive’ (without să) will appear in the same morphosyntactic contexts in MR, but with a lower frequency. During the sixteenth–eighteenth centuries, the subjunctive gradually extends its uses, competing in many contexts with the a-infinitive and also with the indicative (subjunctive să-clauses vs. indicative de-clauses). Besides the synthetic form of the present, there are also various periphrastic forms of the subjunctive.

The main phonological particularities of OR are the following: (i) the phoneme /z/, which appeared before the sixteenth century, is attested in Wallachian and south-east Transylvanian varieties; in the other varieties of Daco-Romanian, [z] was an allophone of the phoneme /ʣ/ (the [ʣ] / [z] variation manifested itself from the time of Common Romanian); the two sounds are marked by different graphemes (z [z], dz / d¸ [ʣ]) or by the same grapheme (z); (ii) the palatal sonorants /ʎ/ (written as li), /ɲ/ (written as ni) restricted their diatopic distribution; /ʎ/ is attested in Banat starting with the sixteenth century; /ɲ/ has been preserved to the present-day in Banat-Hunedoara and in some places in Oltenia; (iii) the devoicing of the asyllabic final sound [u] after consonants (omu, omŭ [omu] ‘man’) was not a generalized Daco-Romanian phenomenon in the sixteenth century; the letter -u, in word-final position, does not always have a phonological value; the pronunciation with a final [u] has been preserved to the present-day in conservative varieties in Transylvania and Moldova, and also in large areas of Wallachia (ILRL: ).

Particular aspects of the content of the texts are relevant to syntactic analysis if corroborated with the aforementioned distinctions. For example, historical, apocryphal, traditional medicinal or moralizing writings, novels, and dictionaries are scarcely revised at all because of their circulation as manuscripts. This might have syntactic implications. Translated texts, original texts issued by institutions (Princely or Episcopal Chancery), or standard documents (purchase agreements) may contain specific constructions that imitate an original or may preserve patterns typical of a specific type of document (Chivu ).

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