Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

The reports during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective category, yet those differ in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical homes, an adjective classification may perhaps beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective category is big and will be freely extra to, in others it's small and closed. with only a dozen or so participants. The publication will curiosity students and complicated scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.

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However, in some languages only adjectives can be compared, and this furnishes a criterion for distinguishing between adjective and verb classes; such a property applies to Toba-Batak (Nababan 1981: 71-2), Korean, North-East Ambae, Qiang, and Lao (Chapters 9,11,13, and 14 below). In Semelai (Chapter 12), only the sub-class of DIMENSION adjectives have a morphological comparative (other forms enter into a periphrastic comparative construction, borrowed from Malay). 5. Different possibilities for forming adverbs In Fijian, for example, adverbs can be formed from adjectives (but generally not from verbs) by means of the prefix va'a-; for example, va'a-levu greatly' from levu 'big'—as in (13')—and va'a-dodonu 'correctly' from dodonu correct'.

Comparative construction In some languages (for example, Russian and Papantla Totonac, in Chapters 6 and 8 below, and also Finnish and Hungarian) only an adjective can occur as the parameter of comparison in a comparative construction, and this serves to distinguish adjectives from nouns. However, in other languages nouns and adjectives share this property and it is thus not a relevant criterion; this applies for Portuguese, for Sanskrit (Bhat 1994:181-2), and also for Dyirbal (Dixon 1972: 226-8).

M. W. Dixon thus be prototypical adjective classes in terms of their syntactic functions. Edo might be a candidate for set (3), since a relative marker is required with adjectives as well as with verbs.

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